Land surveys date back as far the early Egyptians, making it one of the world's most ancient professions. Since then, it has become a fundamental part of every major civilization, as nations needed to understand the shape of the land as well as demarcations in order to know what property was theirs.
The History of Land Surveying Techniques
Over the years, the principles of land surveying have remained the same, using the basic fundamentals of geometry, trigonometry and calculus, however, land surveying equipment has evolved into more advanced technology, which produces more reliable and accurate results. In earlier years, land surveys applied the right principles, however, due to a lack of more precise equipment, they were also less reliable.
Land Survey Types
There are a variety of land surveys, each designed to address its own application. Land surveys are categorized in three basic ways:
- Informational surveys-which are used to create charts and maps.
- Engineering surveys-which ensure the structure is constructed in the correct location.
- Standard land surveys-which calculate land areas and fix property lines etc.
Other sub categories that may factor into the land survey include: property surveys, route surveys, hydrographic surveys and industrial surveys.
Land surveys can also be plane surveys or geodetic surveys. Plane surveys deem the earth as a flat plane and are generally used to examine small areas, whereas, geodetic surveys cover much larger areas and require the curvature of earth to be taken into consideration. They also rely on further land survey techniques such as astronomical direction fixing, trilateration and triangulation for more precise readings.
Land Survey Techniques
There are five survey techniques commonly used today which include: leveling, radiation, trilateration, triangulation and traverse.
- Leveling-uses a leveling instrument to measure the difference in elevation in a specific area.
- Radiation-is used in combination with a plane table to measure a fixed position above ground.
- Trilateration-utilizes electronic measuring equipment to calculate the sides and lengths of triangles used in the triangulation, so that angles can be computed, and is commonly used to measure rough terrain.
- Triangulation-uses a series of conjoined triangles that overlap each other to measure angles from determined locations.
- Traverse-is commonly used for building roads. This technique utilizes a series of lines whose lengths and distances have been computed and are joined together by points in specific locations.
At Adkan, we are expert Land Surveyors. Contact us for your next project.